miércoles, 4 de febrero de 2009

Articulos cientificos efecto pasteurizacion

Effect of Pasteurization on the Bactericidal Capacity of Human Milk.
Silvestre D, Ruiz P, Martínez-Costa C, Plaza A, and López MC
Journal of human lactation : official journal of International Lactation Consultant Association, 2008 Sep 10
- View abstract
The use of human milk in milk banks requires thermal processing to eliminate microbiological hazards. An evaluation is made of the stability of overall human milk bactericidal capacity following 2 modalities of thermal pasteurization: 63 degrees C/30 minutes and 75 degrees C/15 seconds. Ten milk samples (mature milk) were analyzed. In each sample, the effect of both thermal treatments on bactericidal capacity against Escherichia coli was evaluated in relation to the capacity of fresh milk (control). All the samples analyzed possessed bactericidal capacity. Human milk pasteurization induced a significant loss of this capacity that was more pronounced after high-temperature treatment than after low-temperature processing. Untreated milk, low-pasteurized milk, and high-pasteurized milk yielded a reduction in E. coli growth of 70.10%, 52.27%, and 36.39%, respectively. In conclusion, human milk possesses antimicrobial activity that is lost in part as a result of thermal processing. Such bactericidal capacity is, moreover, better preserved by low-temperature, long-time pasteurization.



Efecto de la pasteurizacion en las vitaminas C y E y en el pool de AG (pag 141) M Romeu Nadal, et al.



Flavor and stability of pasteurized milk with elevated levels of conjugated linoleic acid and vaccenic acid.

Lynch JM, Lock AL, Dwyer DA, Noorbakhsh R, Barbano DM, Bauman DE.
Department of Food Science, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA. JL72@cornell.edu
The objectives of this study were to determine if flavor differences between 2% fat pasteurized milks with and without naturally enhanced vaccenic acid (VA) and cis-9, trans-11 conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) levels could be detected over the commercial shelf life of the product and to determine if milk with elevated VA and cis-9, trans-11 CLA levels was more susceptible to development of light-induced oxidative flavor defects. Cows were fed a control diet or the same ration supplemented with 2% soybean oil and 1% fish oil (CLA diet). The milk, standardized to 2% fat, was pasteurized, homogenized, and stored in plastic containers at 4 degrees C. Oxidation was induced by exposing half of the containers to light. Testing was conducted at 1, 7, and 14 d postpasteurization. Average cis-9, trans-11 CLA content of the milks from the control and CLA diet groups was 0.52 and 4.74 g/100 g of fatty acids, respectively (8-fold increase). Average VA content of the milk from the control and CLA diet groups was 1.43 and 12.06 g/100 g of fatty acids, respectively (7.5-fold increase). Together, VA plus CLA represented almost 17% of the total milk fatty acids. There was no effect of light exposure on fatty acid composition initially or over the 14-d storage period. Although VA, cis-9, trans-11 CLA, and degree of unsaturation were significantly elevated in the milk from the CLA diet group, untrained panelists were unable to detect flavor differences initially or over time in 15 of 16 triangle test evaluations. Similarly, sensory results indicated no difference in susceptibility to the development of oxidized off-flavors between the milk from the control and CLA diet groups, even when oxidation was induced by light exposure.
PMID: 15653514 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]



PEDIATRICS Vol. 22 No. 5 November 1958, pp. 935-944

1 Department of Pediatrics, College of Medicine, State University of Iowa
Twenty-nine nitrogen balance studies were performed with 10 normal full-term infants fed fresh human milk either from the breast (eight nitrogen balance studies with four infants) or by bottle. Six of the infants (Group I) were solely breast-fed before and between the metabolic balance periods. Four infants (Group II) were fed pasteurized human milk before and between the metabolic balance periods during which fresh human milk was fed.
The mean intake of nitrogen by the infants fed fresh human milk was less than that of previously studied infants who received pasteurized human milk. Reasons for the smaller mean intakes of nitrogen by infants of Group I may have included voluntary decrease in volume of intake on the part of infants because of time unfamiliar environment or because milk was fed from a bottle. An additional factor may have been decreased supply of milk by the mother (and possibly decreased concentration of nitrogen in the milk) because of altered conditions for nursing and multiple trips to the Metabolism Ward. Decreased concentrations of nitrogen in the milk fed to infants of Group II may have resulted from longer duration of lactation of the women providing the milk and greater volume of milk produced. The relation of retention of nitrogen to intake of nitrogen was the same for infants fed fresh human milk as had been found for those fed pasteurized human milk.
Four of the infants (Group II) studied while receiving fresh human milk by bottle were also studied while receiving pasteurized human milk. Intakes and retentions of nitrogen were similar with both feedings.
The literature concerning nitrogen balance studies of full-term infants was reviewed. Mean intakes and retentions of nitrogen are similar to those of the present study but considerably greater variability was encountered, as might be expected in view of the lack of uniformity of experimental conditions among the different studies.
Processing (pasteurization and freezing) of human milk apparently does not alter its nutritional properties in such a way as to affect nitrogen balance of infants. It is concluded that the retentions of nitrogen of the infants fed processed human milk in the previous study may be considered representative of the retentions of nitrogen by normal breast-fed infants.Submitted on April 7, 1958Accepted on May 20, 1958



Effects of Holder pasteurization on human milk oligosaccharides.

Bertino E, Coppa GV, Giuliani F, Coscia A, Gabrielli O, Sabatino G, Sgarrella M, Testa T, Zampini L, Fabris C.
Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, Department of Pediatrics, Turin University, Piazza Polonia 94, Turin, Italy. enrico.bertino@unito.it
The benefits of human milk have been confirmed for preterm infants, due to its nutritional aspects and to its biologically active compounds. Oligosaccharides play an emerging leading role among these compounds. Mother's milk can sometimes be lacking for preterm infants; pasteurized donor milk represents therefore an important alternative. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of Holder pasteurization on the concentration and pattern of oligosaccharides in preterm human milk. Our results indicate that pasteurization does not affect the concentration or pattern of analyzed oligosaccharides.
PMID: 18547467 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]



Maternal Nutrition and Optimal Infant Feeding Practices
Evaluation of the evidence to support current recommendations to meet the needs of premature infants: the role of human milk1,2,3 Richard J Schanler
1 From the Division of Neonatal-Perinatal Medicine, Schneider Children's Hospital at North Shore, Manhasset, NY, and the Department of Pediatrics, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY

The beneficial effects of human milk extend to the feeding of premature infants, because their nutrition support must be designed to compensate for metabolic and gastrointestinal immaturity, immunologic compromise, and maternal psychosocial conditions. Significant effects on the recipient host, such as reduction in sepsis and necrotizing enterocolitis, have been reported for premature infants fed their mothers' milk. However, nutritional concerns arise because the quantity of nutrients in breast milk may not meet the great nutrient needs of premature infants born weighing <1500 g. Human milk supplements, or fortifiers, are available to augment the nutrient content of unfortified breast milk. Host defense benefits observed in infants fed unfortified human milk also are found in premature infants fed fortified human milk. Availability of milk is an issue for mothers delivering prematurely. Donor pasteurized human milk has been suggested as a proxy for the mother's own milk. Key Words: Human milk • premature infants • fortified human milk



NeoReviews Vol.8 No.11 2007 e459© 2007 American Academy of Pediatrics
The Evidence for Use of Human Milk in Very Low-birthweight Preterm InfantsAloka L. Patel, MD*Paula P. Meier, RN, DNScJanet L. Engstrom, RN, PhD, CNM
* Department of Pediatrics, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, Ill Department of Nursing, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, Ill
Many small and recently larger studies demonstrate the protective effects of human milk feedings for very low-birthweight (VLBW) infants, resulting in decreased morbidities. These benefits are due to the many unique properties of human milk that function synergistically to protect the infant from infectious, inflammatory, and oxidant injury. However, few VLBW infants in the United States receive maternal milk due to significant economic and social barriers. Additionally, the current research has not identified accurately the amount and timing of human milk feedings that provide maximal protection, which would enable optimal use of this scarce resource. Although the benefits of human milk feedings in VLBW infants have been demonstrated clearly, issues that remain unclear include dosing considerations and the economic implications of providing human milk feedings.


Unpasteurized Milk: A Continued Public Health Threat - ►thecompletepatient.com [PDF] L In - Clinical Infectious Diseases, 2009 - UChicago Press... Reprints. View Citations In: PubMed. Related Articles: PubMed. ... the Department ofHealth and Human Services, is ... as the “Grade 'A' Pasteurized Milk Ordinance” (PMO ...



Pasteurization of Banked Human Breast Milk.
Department Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal. 26(3):277-278, March 2007.Menon, Manoj P. MD, MPH; Sobel, Jeremy MD, MPH; Tauxe, Robert V. MD, MPH

Pasteurization of Banked Human Breast Milk.MP Menon, J Sobel, RV Tauxe - The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal, 2007 - pidj.org... federal level, the FDA mandates the pasteurization of all ... be lower if human breastmilk banks all ... 1. American Academy of Pediatrics, Section on Breastfeeding. ... Artículos relacionados - Búsqueda en la web - Las 3 versiones


Journal of Human Lactation, Vol. 23, No. 3, 253-261 (2007)DOI: 10.1177/0890334407303945
Effects of High-Pressure Processing on Immunoglobulin A and Lysozyme Activity in Human MilkStelios Viazis, MS
University of Minnesota, St Paul, Minnesota
Brian E. Farkas, PhD
North Carolina State University, Raleigh, befarkas @ncsu.edu
Jonathan C. Allen, PhD
Department of Food Science at North Carolina State University, Raleigh
Banked human milk, processed using low-temperature/long-time or Holder pasteurization, inactivates pathogenic microorganisms but degrades important biochemical components. High-pressure processing kinetics favor inactivation of microorganisms with retention of biochemical activity and nutritional quality of foods. The effects of high-pressure processing (400 MPa) and low-temperature/long-time pasteurization (62.5°C, 30 minutes) on total immunoglobulin A and lysozyme activity in human milk were investigated. Indirect modified enzyme-linked immunosorbent and a Micrococcus lysodeikticus turbidimetric assay were performed to measure immunoglobulin A immunoactivity and lysozyme activity, respectively. Pressure-treated samples retained significantly higher (P < .05) levels of immunoglobulin A and lysozyme activity compared to samples treated with low-temperature/ long-time pasteurization. These data suggest that high-pressure processing is a potential alternative to thermal pasteurization of human milk that can give greater retention of some bioactive components. Further research is needed to determine whether high-pressure processing can inactivate pathogens of concern in donor human milk. J Hum Lact. 23(3):253-261. Key Words: human milk • milk banking • high-pressure processing • IgA • lysozyme



Role of breast-feeding in managing malnutrition and infectious disease



Contaminants in Human Milk: Weighing the Risks against the Benefits of Breastfeeding
M. Nathaniel Mead



International Breastfeeding Journal - [ Traducir esta página ]
Formato de archivo: PDF/Adobe Acrobat - Versión en HTMLInternational Breastfeeding Journal 2006, 1:6 .... post-pasteurization human donor milk (see figure 2). Widely used in the dairy industry, the Milkoscan ...www.biomedcentral.com/content/pdf/1746-4358-1-6.pdf - Páginas similares


What A Health Care Provider Should KnowAbout Pasteurized Donor Milk - [ Traducir esta página ]
Formato de archivo: PDF/Adobe Acrobat - Versión en HTMLThe cost of not breastfeeding– A commentary. Journal of Human Lactation. ... pasteurized donor milk. Moreover, this brochure will reinforce the value of ...www.breastfeedingtaskforla.org/resources/HCP_PDM__FINAL041206.pdf - Páginas similares

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